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Emission patterns and risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and bromophenols in water and sediments from the Beijiang River, South China
- Xiong, Jukun, Li, Guiying, An, Taicheng, Zhang, Chaosheng, Wei, Chaohai
- Environmental pollution 2016 v.219 pp. 596-603
- bisphenol A, bromine, detection limit, flame retardants, geographic information systems, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, risk, risk assessment, rivers, sediments, trophic levels, China
- To reveal the emission patterns of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in the Beijiang River, South China, concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phenolic BFRs (2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), pentabromophenol (PeBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water and sediments were simultaneously measured, and the geographic information system (GIS) were applied to analyse their emission patterns. Results showed that PBDEs, TBP, PeBP, TBBPA and BPA were ubiquitous in the water and sediment samples collected from the Beijiang River. However, most of the concentrations were very low or below the detection limits (DL). In water, Σ20PBDEs (sum of all 20 PBDEs congeners) levels ranged from < DL to 232 pg L−1, with the predominant congeners containing low bromine contents. The levels of TBP, PeBP, TBBPA and BPA in water were lower than 810 pg L−1. In sediments, Σ20PBDEs varied from 260 to 5640 pg g−1 dry weight (d.w.), with the predominant congeners containing high bromine contents. The levels of TBP, PeBP, TBBPA and BPA were lower than 600 pg g−1 d.w.. Risk assessments indicated that the water and sediments at the sampling locations imposed no estrogenic risk (E2EQ < 1.0 ng E2 L−1), and the eco-toxicity assessment at three trophic levels also showed no risk at all sampling sites in water (RQTotal < 1.0), but with a potential eco-toxicity at some sampling points in sediments (1.0<RQTotal < 10.0).