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Metal concentration and bioaccessibility in different particle sizes of dust and aerosols to refine metal exposure assessment

Goix, Sylvaine, Uzu, Gaëlle, Oliva, Priscia, Barraza, Fiorella, Calas, Aude, Castet, Sylvie, Point, David, Masbou, Jeremy, Duprey, Jean-Louis, Huayta, Carlos, Chincheros, Jaime, Gardon, Jacques
Journal of hazardous materials 2016 v.317 pp. 552-562
aerosols, antimony, arsenic, bioavailability, cadmium, children, copper, exposure assessment, exposure pathways, lead, lungs, mining, particle size, silver, tin, zinc, Bolivia
Refined exposure assessments were realized for children, 7–9yrs, in the mining/smelting city of Oruro, Bolivia. Aerosols (PM>2.5, PM1-2.5, PM0.4-1 and PM0.5) and dust (separated in different particle size fractions: 2000–200μm, 200–50μm, 50–20μm, 20–2μm and <2μm) were sampled on football fields highly frequented by children in both the mining and smelting areas. Trace element concentrations (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn) in each size fraction of dust and aerosols, lung bioaccessibility of metals in aerosols, and gastric bioaccessibility of metals in dust were measured. Exposure was assessed considering actual external exposure (i.e. exposure pathways: metals inhaled and ingested) and simulated internal exposure (i.e., complex estimation using gastric and lung bioaccessibility, deposition and clearance of particles in lungs). Significant differences between external and simulated internal exposure were attributed to dissemblances in gastric and lung bioaccessibilities, as well as metal distribution within particle size range, revealing the importance of both parameters in exposure assessment.