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Stability and bioaccessibility of different forms of carotenoids and vitamin A during in vitro digestion
- Courraud, Julie, Berger, Jacques, Cristol, Jean-Paul, Avallone, Sylvie
- Food chemistry 2013 v.136 no.2 pp. 871-877
- carotenes, carrot juice, cooking, developing countries, flour, food matrix, fruits, in vitro digestion, public health, spinach, vitamin A, vitamin deficiencies
- Vitamin A deficiency is a public health issue in developing countries and promoting dietary carotenoids as precursors is a promising strategy. However, carotenoids present in numerous fruits and vegetables are unstable and poorly bioaccessible. This study evaluated these two parameters during in vitro digestion of carotenoids and retinoids from carrot juice, raw and cooked spinach, micronutrient-fortified flour and standards without food matrix. Standards were unstable whereas vitamin A from fortified flour and native food carotenoids were generally better protected by the food matrix (30–100% remaining versus 7–30% for standards). Hydrothermal cooking did not influence spinach carotenoid digestive stability but decreased their contents, phenomenon compensated by a significantly better micellarisation from 15-fold for β-carotene to 72-fold for lutein. Finally, carrot juice provided the greatest amount of bioaccessible provitamin A with 1850μg/100g dry matter (DM) versus 790 and 80μg/100g DM in cooked and raw spinach, respectively.