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Pathway fraction of bromate formation during O3 and O3/H2O2 processes in drinking water treatment
- Qi, Shengqi, Mao, Yuqin, Lv, Miao, Sun, Lili, Wang, Xiaomao, Yang, Hongwei, Xie, Yuefeng F.
- Chemosphere 2016 v.144 pp. 2436-2442
- hydrogen peroxide, oxidants, oxidation, ozone, surface water, water treatment, Yellow River
- Ozone process has been widely used for drinking water treatment recently. In the oxidation process, bromate is formed by three pathways, i.e., the direct pathway, the direct-indirect pathway and the indirect-direct pathway. This study developed a method to calculate the percentage of these three pathways for bromate formation during O3 process and O3/H2O2 process. Two kinds of water, distilled water containing bromide (DW) and surface water from the Yellow River (SW) were selected as raw rater. The result showed that in natural water systems, the direct-indirect pathway was dominant for bromate formation during the oxidation process. When 3 mg L−1 O3 was used as the only oxidant, nearly 26% of bromide ion was transferred into bromate in two kinds of water after 80 min. The dominant pathway in DW was the direct pathway (48.5%) and the direct-indirect pathway (46.5%), while that was the direct-indirect pathway (68.9%) in SW. When O3/H2O2 were used as oxidants, as the H2O2 dosage increased, the fractions of bromate formation by direct pathway and direct-indirect pathway decreased, while that by indirect-direct pathway increased. The conversion ratio from bromide to bromate first kept stable or increased, then decreased and reached its minimum when [H2O2]/[O3] ratio was 1.0 in DW and 1.5 in SW. Under this condition the indirect-direct pathway took the largest fraction of 70.7% in DW and 64.0% in SW, respectively.