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Spatial and seasonal variations of the chemical, mineralogical and morphological features of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.49) at urban sites

Samara, Constantini, Kantiranis, Nikolaos, Kollias, Panagiotis, Planou, Styliani, Kouras, Athanasios, Besis, Athanasios, Manoli, Evangelia, Voutsa, Dimitra
The Science of the total environment 2016 v.553 pp. 392-403
X-radiation, X-ray diffraction, ammonium compounds, arsenic, at-risk population, barium, cadmium, calcium, carbon, chemical analysis, chemical speciation, chlorides, chromium, cold, copper, energy, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, nitrates, palladium, platinum, potassium, scanning electron microscopy, seasonal variation, sodium, spectroscopy, sulfates, toxicity testing, zinc, Greece
Combining chemical and physical-structural information of particles is a key issue in PM investigations. Chemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterization of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.49) was carried out at two urban sites of varying traffic-influence (roadside and urban background) in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, during the cold and the warm period of 2013. Bulk analyses of chemical species included organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), ionic species (NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Ir). X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was employed for the mineralogical analysis of PM0.49 in order to identify and quantify amorphous and crystalline phases. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was employed for morphological characterization and elemental microanalysis of individual particles. Findings of this work could provide the basis for designing epidemiological and toxicity studies to mitigate population exposure to UFPs.