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Enhancement of ecosystem services during endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization of metal contaminated mine soil

Burges, Aritz, Epelde, Lur, Benito, Garazi, Artetxe, Unai, Becerril, José M., Garbisu, Carlos
The Science of the total environment 2016 v.562 pp. 480-492
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, Festuca rubra, Pseudomonas, bioavailability, biomass, cadmium, carotenoids, chlorophyll, cows, ecosystem services, endophytes, field experimentation, growth chambers, hyperaccumulators, indigenous species, indole acetic acid, lead, phenotype, phosphates, physiological state, phytoremediation, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, salt tolerance, siderophores, slurries, soil, soil quality, soil treatment, solubilization, zinc
Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (endophytes) were isolated from a variety of (pseudo)metallophytes growing in an abandoned Zn/Pb mine and then characterized according to their plant growth-promoting traits (i.e. ACC deaminase activity, IAA production, siderophore production, phosphate solubilising capacity, metal and salt tolerance and phenotypic characterization). Initially, under growth chamber conditions, an endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization study was carried out with Festuca rubra plants (native vs. commercial variety) inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. isolate and cow slurry as organic amendment. The effect of treatments on soil physicochemical and microbial indicators of soil quality, as well as plant physiological parameters and metal concentrations, was assessed. We performed a complementary interpretation of our data through their grouping within a set of ecosystem services. Although the application of cow slurry had the most pronounced effects on soil quality indicators and ecosystem services, the growth of native F. rubra plants reduced soil bioavailability of Cd and Zn by 19 and 22%, respectively, and enhanced several soil microbial parameters. On the other hand, endophyte (Pseudomonas sp.) inoculation improved the physiological status of F. rubra plants by increasing the content of carotenoids, chlorophylls and Fv/Fm by 69, 65 and 37%, respectively, while also increasing the values of several soil microbial parameters. Finally, a consortium of five endophyte isolates was used for an endophyte-assisted aided phytostabilization field experiment, where lower metal concentrations in native excluder plants were found. Nonetheless, the field inoculation of the endophyte consortium had no effect on the biomass of native plants.