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Short communication: Altered expression of specificity protein 1 impairs milk fat synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells

Zhu, J.J., Luo, J., Xu, H.F., Wang, H., Loor, J.J.
Journal of dairy science 2016 v.99 no.6 pp. 4893-4898
epithelial cells, gene overexpression, genes, goats, hormones, lipid metabolism, mammary glands, milk fat, secretion, small interfering RNA, transcription factors, triacylglycerols
Specificity protein 1 (encoded by SP1) is a novel transcription factor important for the regulation of lipid metabolism and the normal function of various hormones in model organisms. Its potential role, if any, on ruminant milk fat is unknown. Despite the lower expression of the lipolysis-related gene ATGL (by 44 and 37% respectively), both the adenoviral overexpression and the silencing of SP1 [via short interfering (si)RNA] markedly reduced cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content (by 28 and 25%, respectively), at least in part by decreasing the expression of DGAT1 (−36% in adenovirus treatment) and DGAT2 (−81 and −87%, respectively) that are involved in TAG synthesis. Consistent with the markedly lower expression of genes related to lipid droplet formation and secretion (TIP47 by 19 and 32%, and ADFP by 25 and 25%, respectively), cellular lipid droplet content was also decreased sharply, by 9 and 8.5%, respectively, after adenoviral overexpression of SP1 or its silencing via siRNA. Overall, the results underscored a potentially important role of SP1 in maintaining milk-fat droplet synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells.