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Exposing the Alkanesulfonate Monooxygenase Protein–Protein Interaction Sites

Dayal, Paritosh V., Singh, Harsimran, Busenlehner, Laura S., Ellis, Holly R.
Biochemistry 2015 v.54 no.51 pp. 7531-7538
active sites, amino acids, enzyme substrates, enzymes, fluorometry, mass spectrometry, protein-protein interactions
The alkanesulfonate monooxygenase enzymes (SsuE and SsuD) catalyze the desulfonation of diverse alkanesulfonate substrates. The SsuE enzyme is an NADPH-dependent FMN reductase that provides reduced flavin to the SsuD monooxygenase enzyme. Previous studies have highlighted the presence of protein–protein interactions between SsuE and SsuD thought to be important in the flavin transfer event, but the putative interaction sites have not been identified. Protected sites on specific regions of SsuE and SsuD were identified by hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. An α-helix on SsuD containing conserved charged amino acids showed a decrease in percent deuteration in the presence of SsuE. The α-helical region of SsuD is part of an insertion sequence and is adjacent to the active site opening. A SsuD variant containing substitutions of the charged residues showed a 4-fold decrease in coupled assays that included SsuE to provide reduced FMN, but there was no activity observed with an SsuD variant containing a deletion of the α-helix under similar conditions. Desulfonation by the SsuD deletion variant was only observed with an increase in enzyme and substrate concentrations. Although activity was observed under certain conditions, there were no protein–protein interactions observed with the SsuD variants and SsuE in pull-down assays and fluorimetric titrations. The results from these studies suggest that optimal transfer of reduced flavin from SsuE to SsuD requires defined protein–protein interactions, but diffusion can occur under specified conditions. A basis is established for further studies to evaluate the structural features of the alkanesulfonate monooxygenase enzymes that promote desulfonation.