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Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.: Gastric and duodenal anti-ulcer, antimicrobial and antidiarrheal effects in experimental rodent models

Santos, Raquel Cássia, Kushima, Hélio, Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins, Sannomiya, Miriam, Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado, Bauab, Taís Maria, Tamashiro, Jorge, Vilegas, Wagner, Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2012 v.140 no.2 pp. 203-212
Byrsonima, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Staphylococcus aureus, anti-ulcer activity, antidiarrheal effect, antimicrobial properties, castor oil, cerrado, diarrhea, ethanol, flavanols, gastric juice, gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal motility, glutathione, leaves, mice, models, mucus, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, rats, receptors, stomach ulcers
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: An ethnopharmacological survey indicated that the leaves of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae), a medicinal species commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado, can be used against gastroduodenal disorders, such as gastric ulcers and diarrhea. AIM OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a methanolic extract of Byrsonima intermedia (MBI) leaves on gastric and duodenal ulcers and to assess the antimicrobial and antidiarrheal effects of this extract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The anti-ulcerogenic effect of MBI was investigated with different ulcerogenic agents in rodents (mice and rats), including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), HCl/ethanol, pyloric ligature, absolute ethanol, cysteamine and ischemia–reperfusion. The gastroprotective effect of MBI was assessed by analysing the volume of gastric juice, pH, total acidity, mucus, NO, sulfhydryl compound, vanilloid receptor, glutathione (GSH) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the gastric and duodenal mucosa. The gastric and duodenal healing effects of MBI were also evaluated during 7 or 14 days of treatment. The antidiarrheal action (measured by intestinal motility and diarrhea induced by castor oil) and anti-bacterial action of MBI against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori were also evaluated by microdilution methods. RESULTS: The phytochemical profile from MBI indicated the presence of phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, and flavonoids. MBI (500mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited totally gastric and duodenal lesions (69%) and healed gastric (49% on 14 days) and duodenal lesions (45% on 7 and 14 days). The MBI exert gastroprotective action by participation of endogenous sulfhydryl compounds, vanilloid receptors and increase in GSH level to effective gastric and duodenal protection. MBI also displayed curative (42%) and preventive (49%) antidiarrheal effects by involvement of opiate receptors and also antimicrobial effects in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Byrsonima intermedia leaves present gastroprotective, healing and antidiarrheal activities, supporting previous claims that its traditional use can treat gastrointestinal disorders.