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Surface-Initiated Dehydrogenative Polymerization of Monolignols: A Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring and Atomic Force Microscopy Study

Wang, Chao, Qian, Chen, Roman, Maren, Glasser, Wolfgang G., Esker, Alan R.
Biomacromolecules 2013 v.14 no.11 pp. 3964-3972
Lewis bases, aqueous solutions, atomic force microscopy, cellulose, films (materials), gold, hydrogen peroxide, models, monitoring, nanocrystals, peroxidase, polymerization, polymers, quartz, sinapyl alcohol, temperature
This work highlights a real-time and label-free method to monitor the dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols initiated by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) physically immobilized on surfaces using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The dehydrogenative polymer (DHP) films are expected to provide good model substrates for studying ligninolytic enzymes. The HRP was adsorbed onto gold or silica surfaces or onto and within porous desulfated nanocrystalline cellulose films from an aqueous solution. Surface-immobilized HRP retained its activity and selectivity for monolignols as coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohol underwent dehydrogenative polymerization in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas sinapyl alcohol polymerization required the addition of a nucleophile. The morphologies of the DHP layers on the surfaces were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM). Data from QCM-D and AFM showed that the surface-immobilized HRP-initiated dehydrogenative polymerization of monolignols was greatly affected by the support surface, monolignol concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and temperature.