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Effects of ambient and elevated CO2 and ozone on physiological characteristics, antioxidative defense system and metabolites of potato in relation to ozone flux

Kumari, Sumita, Agrawal, Madhoolika, Singh, Aradhana
Environmental and experimental botany 2015 v.109 pp. 276-287
Solanum tuberosum, antioxidant activity, ascorbate peroxidase, carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide enrichment, carbon dioxide fixation, cell membranes, chlorophyll, glutathione-disulfide reductase, leaves, lipid peroxidation, metabolites, oxidative stress, ozone, phenolic compounds, photosynthesis, potatoes, solutes, superoxide dismutase
The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of carbon dioxide (ambient (382ppm) and elevated (570ppm)) and O3 (ambient (50ppb) and elevated (70ppb)) on physiological and biochemical characteristics of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) using open top chambers. Ozone flux in leaves at 60 days after emergence (DAE) showed a trend in decreasing order as ACO2+EO3>ACO2+AO3>ECO2+EO3>ECO2+AO3>ACO2. Ozone flux was found to correlate directly with the plant’s photosynthetic performance and antioxidative response under different combinations of ambient and elevated CO2 and O3. Maximum O3 flux under ambient CO2 and elevated O3 (ACO2+EO3) caused the highest increase in lipid peroxidation and solute leakage and reductions in chlorophyll content along with photosynthesis rate. Elevated O3 stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) under ambient (ACO2+EO3) and elevated CO2 (ECO2+EO3). However, all these alterations were alleviated by elevated CO2, indicating that oxidative stress on cell membrane was minimized and depression in photosynthesis rate recovered under combination of ECO2+EO3. Elevated CO2 increased antioxidative enzymes and total phenolics in the leaves under ECO2+EO3 at 30 DAE, contributing to the protection against O3 induced oxidative stress. However, at 60 DAE, the protection provided by ECO2 was mainly by reducing the ozone flux inside the leaves under ECO2+EO3. The study suggests that future increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2 will ameliorate O3 damage to potato due to reduced O3 uptake, increased carbon assimilation and by enhancing antioxidative property of leaves as an additional factor.