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AKT is critically involved in cooperation between obesity and the dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] (PhIP) toward colon carcinogenesis in rats

Igarashi, Maki, Hippo, Yoshitaka, Ochiai, Masako, Fukuda, Hirokazu, Nakagama, Hitoshi
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2014 v.443 pp. 852-857
apoptosis, biomarkers, carcinogenesis, carcinogens, caspase-3, colon, colorectal neoplasms, high fat diet, immunoblotting, low fat diet, obesity, pyridines, rats, ribose, transcriptome
Obesity is highly associated with colon cancer development. Whereas it is generally attributed to pro-tumorigenic effects of high fat diet (HFD), we here show that a common genetic basis for predisposition to obesity and colon cancer might also underlie the close association. Comparison across multiple rat strains revealed that strains prone to colon tumorigenesis initiated by a dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) tended to develop obesity. Through transcriptome and extensive immunoblotting analyses, we identified the basal level of activated AKT in colonic crypts as a biomarker for the common predisposition. Notably, PhIP induced activation of AKT, which could persist for several weeks under a low fat diet (LFD), but not under HFD. On the other hand, PhIP and HFD independently induced Wnt pathway activation and inhibited apoptosis, through distinct mechanisms involving GSK-3β, caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, these observations provide mechanistic insights into how PhIP-induced activation of AKT might cooperate with HFD at multiple levels toward development of colon cancer.