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Intimal smooth muscle cells are a source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory CYP450 derived oxylipins

Thomson, Scott, Edin, Matthew L., Lih, Fred B., Davies, Michael, Yaqoob, Muhammad M., Hammock, Bruce D., Gilroy, Derek, Zeldin, Darryl C., Bishop-Bailey, David
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2015 v.463 pp. 774-780
Toll-like receptor 4, aneurysm, animal models, aorta, arachidonic acid, atherosclerosis, diabetes, disease models, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, epoxide hydrolase, humans, hypertension, inducible nitric oxide synthase, linoleic acid, messenger RNA, metabolites, myocytes, oxylipins, phenotype, protective effect, rats, smooth muscle, swine, transcription factor NF-kappa B
Vascular pathologies are associated with changes in the presence and expression of morphologically distinct vascular smooth muscle cells. In particular, in complex human vascular lesions and models of disease in pigs and rodents, an intimal smooth muscle cell (iSMC) which exhibits a stable epithelioid or rhomboid phenotype in culture is often found to be present in high numbers, and may represent the reemergence of a distinct developmental vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype. The CYP450-oxylipin - soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) pathway is currently of great interest in targeting for cardiovascular disease. sEH inhibitors limit the development of hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and aneurysm formation in animal models. We have investigated the expression of CYP450-oxylipin-sEH pathway enzymes and their metabolites in paired intimal (iSMC) and medial (mSMC) cells isolated from rat aorta. iSMC basally released significantly larger amounts of epoxy-oxylipin CYP450 products from eicosapentaenoic acid > docosahexaenoic acid > arachidonic acid > linoleic acid, and expressed higher levels of CYP2C12, CYP2B1, but not CYP2J mRNA compared to mSMC. When stimulated with the pro-inflammatory TLR4 ligand LPS, epoxy-oxylipin production did not change greatly in iSMC. In contrast, LPS induced epoxy-oxylipin products in mSMC and induced CYP2J4. iSMC and mSMC express sEH which metabolizes primary epoxy-oxylipins to their dihydroxy-counterparts. The sEH inhibitors TPPU or AUDA inhibited LPS-induced NFκB activation and iNOS induction in mSMC, but had no effect on NFκB nuclear localization or inducible nitric oxide synthase in iSMC; effects which were recapitulated in part by addition of authentic epoxy-oxylipins. iSMCs are a rich source but not a sensor of anti-inflammatory epoxy-oxylipins. Complex lesions that contain high levels of iSMCs may be more resistant to the protective effects of sEH inhibitors.