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Metabolic flux analysis of the halophilic archaeon Haladaptatus paucihalophilus

Liu, Guangxiu, Zhang, Manxiao, Mo, Tianlu, He, Lian, Zhang, Wei, Yu, Yi, Zhang, Qi, Ding, Wei
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2015 v.467 pp. 1058-1062
Archaea, biosynthesis, carbon, culture media, genes, glycine (amino acid), glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, isoleucine, lysine, pyruvic acid, threonine, transcription (genetics), tricarboxylic acid cycle
This work reports the 13C-assisted metabolic flux analysis of Haladaptatus paucihalophilus, a halophilic archaeon possessing an intriguing osmoadaption mechanism. We showed that the carbon flow is through the oxidative tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle whereas the reductive TCA cycle is not operative in H. paucihalophilus. In addition, both threonine and the citramalate pathways contribute to isoleucine biosynthesis, whereas lysine is synthesized through the diaminopimelate pathway and not through the α-aminoadipate pathway. Unexpected, the labeling patterns of glycine from the cells grown on [1-13C]pyruvate and [2-13C]pyruvate suggest that, unlike all the organisms investigated so far, in which glycine is produced exclusively from the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) pathway, glycine biosynthesis in H. paucihalophilus involves different pathways including SHMT, threonine aldolase (TA) and the reverse reaction of glycine cleavage system (GCS), demonstrating for the first time that other pathways instead of SHMT can also make a significant contribution to the cellular glycine pool. Transcriptional analysis confirmed that both TA and GCS genes were transcribed in H. paucihalophilus, and the transcriptional level is independent of salt concentrations in the culture media. This study expands our understanding of amino acid biosynthesis and provides valuable insights into the metabolism of halophilic archaea.