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Acaricidal properties of Ricinus communis leaf extracts against organophosphate and pyrethroids resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

Ghosh, Srikanta, Tiwari, Shashi Shankar, Srivastava, Sharad, Sharma, Anil Kumar, Kumar, Sachin, Ray, D.D., Rawat, A.K.S.
Veterinary parasitology 2013 v.192 no.1-3 pp. 259-267
gallic acid, in vivo studies, leaf extracts, ticks, kaempferol, physiology, Rhipicephalus, Ricinus communis, diazinon, pyrethrins, acaricide resistance, quercetin, acaricidal properties, hexane, mortality
Indian cattle ticks have developed resistance to commonly used acaricides and an attempt has been made to formulate an ecofriendly herbal preparation for the control of acaricide resistant ticks. A 95% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis was used to test the efficacy against reference acaricide resistant lines by in vitro assay. In in vitro assay, the extract significantly affects the mortality rate of ticks in dose-dependent manner ranging from 35.0±5.0 to 95.0±5.0% with an additional effect on reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting 36.4–63.1% of oviposition. The leaf extract was found effective in killing 48.0, 56.7 and 60.0% diazinon, deltamethrin and multi-acaricide resistant ticks, respectively. However, the cidal and oviposition limiting properties of the extract were separated when the extract was fractionated with hexane, choloroform, n-butanol and water. The HPTLC finger printing profile of R. communis leaf extract under λmax. – 254 showed presence of quercetin, gallic acid, flavone and kaempferol which seemed to have synergistic acaricidal action. In vivo experiment resulted in 59.9% efficacy on Ist challenge, however, following 2nd challenge the efficacy was reduced to 48.5%. The results indicated that the 95% ethanolic leaf extract of R. communis can be used effectively in integrated format for the control of acaricide resistant ticks.