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Immunity against selected piscine flagellates

Woo, Patrick T.K., Ardelli, Bernadette F.
Developmental and comparative immunology 2014 v.43 no.2 pp. 268-279
Amyloodinium ocellatum, Cryptobia, Salmonidae, Trypanoplasma, Trypanosoma, antibodies, antigens, carp, complement, genetically modified organisms, genotype, immune response, live vaccines, loci, macrophages, nitric oxide, salmon, transferrin
This discussion is on immune response to Amyloodinium ocellatum, Cryptobia salmositica, Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. Piscidin and histone-like proteins enhance innate resistance to Amyloodinium. Fish that are naturally resistant to Cryptobia and Trypanoplasma can be bred. Cryptobia resistance in charr is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus and protection is via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. Studies on Cryptobia-tolerant charr may lead to production of transgenic Cryptobia-tolerant salmon. Innate response to T. borreli is associated with NO in macrophages. Transferrin regulates resistance and carp have been bred for transferrin genotypes. Recovered fish are protected from homologous challenge, and complement fixing antibodies are crucial in protection. Studies on antigens in T. carassii may lead to a vaccine. There are two vaccines against cryptobiosis; a single dose of the attenuated vaccine protects salmonids. On challenge fish inoculated with the metalloprotease-DNA vaccine do not have the disease and they recover faster.