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Chemical Speciation of Vanadium in Particulate Matter Emitted from Diesel Vehicles and Urban Atmospheric Aerosols
- Shafer, Martin M., Toner, Brandy M., Overdier, Joel T., Schauer, James J., Fakra, Sirine C., Hu, Shaohua, Herner, Jorn D., Ayala, Alberto
- Environmental Science & Technology 2012 v.46 no.1 pp. 189-195
- X-ray absorption spectroscopy, aerosols, chemical speciation, diesel engines, oxidation, particulate emissions, particulates, vanadium
- We report on the development and application of an integrated set of analytical tools that enable accurate measurement of total, extractable, and, importantly, the oxidation state of vanadium in sub-milligram masses of environmental aerosols and solids. Through rigorous control of blanks, application of magnetic-sector-ICPMS, and miniaturization of the extraction/separation methods we have substantially improved upon published quantification limits. The study focused on the application of these methods to particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel vehicles, both in baseline configuration without after-treatment and also equipped with advanced PM and NOₓ emission controls. Particle size-resolved vanadium speciation data were obtained from dynamometer samples containing total vanadium pools of only 0.2–2 ng and provide some of the first measurements of the oxidation state of vanadium in diesel vehicle PM emissions. The emission rates and the measured fraction of V(V) in PM from diesel engines running without exhaust after-treatment were both low (2–3 ng/mile and 13–16%, respectively). The V(IV) species was measured as the dominant vanadium species in diesel PM emissions. A significantly greater fraction of V(V) (76%) was measured in PM from the engine fitted with a prototype vanadium-based selective catalytic reductors (V-SCR) retrofit. The emission rate of V(V) determined for the V-SCR equipped vehicle (103 ng/mile) was 40-fold greater than that from the baseline vehicle. A clear contrast between the PM size-distributions of V(V) and V(IV) emissions was apparent, with the V(V) distribution characterized by a major single mode in the ultrafine (<0.25 μm) size range and the V(IV) size distribution either flat or with a small maxima in the accumulation mode (0.5–2 μm). The V(V) content of the V-SCR PM (6.6 μg/g) was 400-fold greater than that in PM from baseline (0.016 μg/g) vehicles, and among the highest of all environmental samples examined. Synchrotron based V 1s XANES spectroscopy of vanadium-containing fine-particle PM from the V-SCR identified V₂O₅ as the dominant vanadium species.