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Distribution and Air–Sea Exchange of Current-Use Pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the High Arctic Ocean

Zhong, Guangcai, Xie, Zhiyong, Cai, Minghong, Möller, Axel, Sturm, Renate, Tang, Jianhui, Zhang, Gan, He, Jianfeng, Ebinghaus, Ralf
Environmental Science & Technology 2012 v.46 no.1 pp. 259-267
air, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, detection limit, dicofol, endosulfan, gas exchange, latitude, seawater, trifluralin, Arctic region, Chukchi Sea, East Asia, East China Sea, Sea of Japan
Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23–84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m³) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from <MDL to 111 pg/L. Latitudinal trends of α-endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and dicofol in seawater were roughly consistent with their latitudinal trends in air. Trifluralin in seawater was relatively high in the Sea of Japan (35.2° N) and evenly distributed between 36.9 and 72.5° N, but it remained below the detection limit at the highest northern latitudes in Chukchi Sea. In contrast with other CUPs, concentrations of chlorothalonil and dacthal were more abundant in Chukchi Sea and in East Asia. The air–sea gas exchange of CUPs was generally dominated by net deposition. Latitudinal trends of fugacity ratios of α-endosulfan, chlorothalonil, and dacthal showed stronger deposition of these compounds in East Asia than in Chukchi Sea, while trifluralin showed stronger deposition in Chukchi Sea (−455 ± 245 pg/m²/day) than in the North Pacific (–241 ± 158 pg/m²/day). Air–sea gas exchange of chlorpyrifos varied from net volatilizaiton in East Asia (<40° N) to equilibrium or net deposition in the North Pacific and the Arctic.