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Assessing Environmental Fate of β-HCH in Asian Soil and Association with Environmental Factors
- Xu, Yue, Tian, Chongguo, Ma, Jianmin, Zhang, Gan, Li, Yi-Fan, Ming, Lili, Li, Jun, Chen, Yingjun, Tang, Jianhui
- Environmental Science & Technology 2012 v.46 no.17 pp. 9525-9532
- HCH (pesticide), environmental degradation, environmental factors, environmental fate, models, monsoon season, soil, spatial variation, summer, temporal variation, China, India
- Chinese Gridded Pesticide Emission and Residue Model was applied to simulate long-term environmental fate of β-HCH in Asia spanning 1948–2009. The model captured well the spatiotemporal variation of β-HCH soil concentrations across the model domain. β-HCH use in different areas within the model domain was simulated respectively to assess the influence of the different sources of β-HCH on its environment fate. A mass center of soil residue (MCSR) was introduced and used to explore environmental factors contributing to the spatiotemporal variation of β-HCH soil residue. Results demonstrate that the primary emission dominates β-HCH soil residues during the use of this pesticide. After phase-out of the pesticide in 1999, the change in β-HCH soil residues has been associated with the Asian summer monsoon, featured by northward displacement of the MCSR. The displacement from several major sources in China and northeastern Asia shows a downward trend at a 95% confidence level, largely caused by environmental degradation and northward delivery of β-HCH under cold condition in northern area. The MCSRs away from the India and southern and southeastern Asia sources show a rapid northward displacement at a 99% confidence level, featuring the cold trapping effect of the Tibetan Plateau.