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Effects of the Updated National Emission Regulation in China on Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers and the Solutions To Meet Them

Li, Jingji, Yang, Hairui, Wu, Yuxin, Lv, Junfu, Yue, Guangxi
Environmental Science & Technology 2013 v.47 no.12 pp. 6681-6687
boilers, calcium, coal, dust emissions, flue gas desulfurization, fluidized beds, fly ash, industry, limestone, mercury, oxygen, particle size distribution, sulfur, sulfur dioxide, temperature, China
The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg·Nm–³. For SO₂ emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas–solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (<1.5%, referred value based on the heating value of standard coal of China), increasing Ca/S enough could decrease SO₂ emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg·Nm–³. For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOₓ emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg·Nm–³ without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (<12%), while for fuels with high volatiles, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) should be considered. Due to the unique temperature in CFB as well as the circulating ash, the efficiency of SNCR could reach as high as 70%. The Hg emission of CFB is very low for the new NER due to its innate property.