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Dairy cows produce cytokine and cytotoxic T cell responses following vaccination with an antigenic fraction from Streptococcus uberis

Neil Wedlock, D., Buddle, Bryce M., Williamson, John, Lacy-Hulbert, S. Jane, Turner, Sally-Anne, Subharat, Supatsak, Heiser, Axel
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2014 v.160 no.1-2 pp. 51-60
Streptococcus uberis, T-lymphocytes, adverse effects, antibodies, antigens, calving, cytotoxicity, dairy calves, dairy cows, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, humoral immunity, immune response, interferon-gamma, lactation, macrophages, mammary glands, mastitis, monocytes, proteins, vaccination, vaccines, New Zealand
Streptococcus uberis is a major cause of mastitis in dairy cows worldwide and currently, there is no vaccine commercially available against this form of mastitis. In the current study, cell-free extracts (CFE) were prepared from each of three different S. uberis strains, designated as #3, #24 and #363 representative of the three main sequence types of S. uberis that cause mastitis in New Zealand. These proteins were formulated into vaccines with Emulsigen-D and the immunogenicity of the vaccines was determined in both calves and dairy cows. Two groups of calves (n=5/group) were vaccinated subcutaneously with CFE from strain #24 or strains #3, #24 and #363 formulated with Emulsigen-D, respectively. A third group (n=5) was vaccinated with CFE from the three strains formulated with Emulsigen-D and also containing recombinant bovine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor while, a control group (n=5) was not vaccinated. Vaccinated animals produced strong antibody responses to the S. uberis antigens and an antigen-specific cytotoxic effect against blood monocytes/macrophages that had phagocytosed S. uberis, with no significant differences in responses observed between the three vaccinated groups. In a second trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine containing CFE from all three strains of S. uberis and Emulsigen-D was determined in dairy cows. A group of six cows were vaccinated subcutaneously at 3 and 1 week prior to dry off and revaccinated 2–3 weeks before calving. Immune responses in blood and mammary gland secretions (MGS) were monitored during the dry period and in the subsequent lactation. The vaccine was well tolerated with no adverse effect from vaccination observed in any of the cows. Vaccination induced an antigen-specific cytotoxic effect against blood monocytes/macrophages that had phagocytosed S. uberis, moderate antigen-specific IFN-γ responses in blood and strong antibody responses in both blood and MGS. In conclusion, the results suggest vaccination of cattle with S. uberis CFE by the subcutaneous route can induce both cellular and humoral responses.