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CpG oligodeoxynucleotide protect neonatal piglets from challenge with the enterotoxigenic E. coli

Cai, Haiming, Kuang, Zheshi, Huang, Kuiying, Shi, Juqing, Zhao, Xiangjie, Chu, Pingping, Huang, Chaoyuan, Ming, Feiping, Xia, Fenggeng, Yang, Jun, Zhang, Linghua
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2014 v.161 no.1-2 pp. 66-76
antibodies, antigens, bacterial infections, chickens, diarrhea, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, excretion, innate immunity, interferon-gamma, interleukin-12, intestines, lymphocytes, macrophages, mice, monkeys, mucosa, oligodeoxyribonucleotides, pathogens, piglets, sheep
CpG motifs activates mammalian lymphocytes and macrophages to produce cytokines and polyclonal Ig. These include IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-a, which are important in the control of bacterial infection. But thus far, the innate immunostimulatory effects of CpG ODN against pathogen have been established mainly in mouse, monkey, sheep, chicken, but not in neonatal piglets. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential protection of CpG ODN against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (with which neonatal piglets were susceptible to infection in our lab) in neonatal piglets. Here, we show intranasal (IN)—mucosal and intramuscularly (IM) systemic administration of CpG ODN could enhance innate cellular (cytokine) immunity in the sera and intestine mucosa post challenge, and thereafter the development of antigen-specific antibodies in piglets. IN and IM immunizations of neonatal piglets without antigen both reduced the ETEC excretion and alleviated diarrhoea symptoms upon challenge, and IN route had better protection effects than IM route. Protection in this study was linked to induction of a Th1 response which induced by CpG ODN. Co-delivery with Emulsigen (EM), could improve protection mediated by CpG ODN. These observations indicate that IN administration of 100μg/kg CpG ODN with 20% EM codelivery may represent a valuable strategy for induction of innate immunity against ETEC infection in neonatal piglets.