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Immune responses of pigs immunized with a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus expressing porcine GM-CSF

Li, Zhijun, Wang, Gang, Wang, Yan, Zhang, Chong, Huang, Baicheng, Li, Qiongyi, Li, Liangliang, Xue, Biyun, Ding, Peiyang, Cai, Xuehui, Wang, Chengbao, Zhou, En-Min
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 2015 v.168 no.1-2 pp. 40-48
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, T-lymphocytes, adjuvants, cell culture, cell-mediated immunity, chronic diseases, financial economics, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, humoral immunity, immune response, interferon-gamma, pork industry, swine, vaccines, viremia, viruses
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has spread worldwide, causing huge economic losses to the swine industry. The current PRRSV vaccines have failed to provide broad protection against various strains. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an efficacious adjuvant, has been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of various vaccines. The purpose of this study was to construct a recombinant live attenuated PRRSV that expresses porcine GM-CSF (pGM-CSF) and evaluate the immune responses of pigs immunized with the recombinant virus. The results showed that the recombinant PRRSV was successfully rescued and had similar growth properties to parental virus grown in Marc-145 cells. The recombinant virus was stable for 10 passages in cell culture. Pigs intramuscularly immunized with the recombinant virus produced a similar humoral response to that elicited using parental virus. With regard to cell-mediated immunity assessed in peripheral blood, the recombinant virus induced higher proportion of CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells (DPT), higher IFN-γ level at 0 and 7 days post-challenge (DPC), and lower viremia at 21 DPC than pigs immunized with parental virus. These results indicate that recombinant PRRSV expressing pGM-CSF can induce a significant higher cellular immune response and reduce the persistent infection compared pigs vaccinated with the parental virus. This is first report of evaluation of immune response in pigs elicited by a recombinant live attenuated PRRSV expressing porcine GM-CSF. It may represent a novel strategy for future development of genetic engineered vaccines against PRRSV infection.