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Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection results in acute lung injury of the infected pigs

Han, Deping, Hu, Yanxin, Li, Limin, Tian, Haiyan, Chen, Zhi, Wang, Lin, Ma, Haiyan, Yang, Hanchun, Teng, Kedao
Veterinary microbiology 2014 v.169 no.3-4 pp. 135-146
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, fibrosis, financial economics, histamine, immune response, interleukins, lungs, macrophages, mast cells, morbidity, mortality, neutrophils, pathogenesis, platelet activation, swine, swine production, tumor necrosis factors, virulence, viruses, China
Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) was firstly characterized in 2006 in China. The virus has caused great economic loss to the Chinese swine production during the past years. Herein, we experimentally infected SPF pigs using two strains of PRRSV with different pathogenicity and observed the lung pathological changes looking for new sights on the possible pathogenesis associated with the virulence of HP-PRRSV. The results indicated that the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs died and exhibited severe pathological changes of lungs featuring increased neutrophils, mast cells and mononuclear macrophages, compared with the pigs inoculated with low pathogenic (LP-) PRRSV. Furthermore, the pigs infected with HP-PRRSV showed the higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interleukin (IL)-8 and histamine, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), platelet activation factor (PAF) in sera than those inoculated with LP-PRRSV. Additionally, the fibrosis of lung was observed in the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. At present, our findings suggest that the aberrant immune responses triggered by HP-PRRSV infection are closely related to acute lung injury (ALI), and especially the pathological changes in lung vascular system are of particular significance. These associated pathological changes of lung are in part responsible for the additional morbidity and mortality observed in HP-PRRSV infection.