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Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic

Janatova, Martina, Albrechtova, Katerina, Petrzelkova, Klara Judita, Dolejska, Monika, Papousek, Ivo, Masarikova, Martina, Cizek, Alois, Todd, Anguelique, Shutt, Kathryn, Kalousova, Bara, Profousova-Psenkova, Ilona, Modry, David, Literak, Ivan
Veterinary microbiology 2014 v.171 no.3-4 pp. 422-431
Citrobacter, Escherichia coli, Gorilla gorilla, Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance, bacteria, beta-lactamase, ceftiofur, conservation areas, ecosystems, gastrointestinal system, genes, humans, people, public health, quinolones, wildlife, Central African Republic
Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide concern of public health. Unfortunately, resistant bacteria are spreading to all ecosystems, including the strictly protected ones. We investigated antimicrobial resistance in gastrointestinal Enterobacteriaceae of wild mammals and people living within Dzangha-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, with an emphasis on extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. We compare resistance genes found in microbiota of humans, gorillas habituated and unhabituated to humans and other wildlife. In gorillas, we additionally investigate the presence of ESBL resistant isolates after treatment by ceftiofur. We found a considerable prevalence of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates with ESBL and PMQR genes in humans (10% and 31%, respectively). Among wildlife the most significant findings were CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a habituated gorilla and a multiresistant Escherichia coli isolate with gene qepA in an unhabituated gorilla. Other isolates from wildlife were mostly represented by qnrB-harboring Citrobacter spp. The relatedness of resistant E. coli was investigated in a PFGE-based dendrogram; isolates from gorillas showed less than 80% similarity to each other and less than 80% similarity to human isolates. No ESBL-producing isolates were found in animals treated by ceftiofur. Although we did not detect any bacterial clone common to wildlife and humans, we detected an intersection in the spectrum of resistance genes found in humans and gorillas, represented by blaCTX-M-15 and qepA.