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Serological and molecular prevalence of swine influenza virus on farms in northwestern Mexico

López-Robles, Guadalupe, Montalvo-Corral, Maricela, Burgara-Estrella, Alexel, Hernández, Jesús
Veterinary microbiology 2014 v.172 no.1-2 pp. 323-328
Influenza A virus, Rodent protoparvovirus 1, commercial farms, pandemic, phylogeny, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, surveys, swine, swine influenza, viruses, Mexico
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the epidemiological status of swine influenza viruses in pigs from northwestern Mexico in 2008–2009. A serological and molecular survey was conducted in 150 pigs from 15 commercial farms in Sonora, Mexico (northwestern region of Mexico). The serological data showed that 55% of the sera were positive for the H1N1 subtype, 59% for the H3N2 subtype, and 38% for both subtypes. Overall, 16.6% (25/150) of the samples were positive for type A influenza by qRT-PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the H1 viruses circulating in northwestern Mexico were grouped into cluster α, from five other clusters previously described. The influenza virus H1 circulating in northwestern Mexico showed 97–100% identity at the nucleotide level among them, 89% identity with other North American strains, 88% with strains from central Mexico, and 85% with the pandemic A/H1N1p2009 virus. Meanwhile, a closer relationship with some influenza viruses from North America (97% nucleotide identity) was found for H3 subtype. In conclusion, our results demonstrated a high circulation of strains similar to those observed in the North American linage among commercial farms in northwestern Mexico, involving of a different lineage virus different to the influenza pandemic of 2009.