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Long-term monitoring of 10 selected pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Sierra Nevada National Park, southern Spain

Cano-Manuel, Francisco J., López-Olvera, Jorge, Fandos, Paulino, Soriguer, Ramón C., Pérez, Jesús M., Granados, José E.
Veterinary microbiology 2014 v.174 no.1-2 pp. 148-154
Chlamydia, Influenza A virus, Leptospira, Mycobacterium bovis, Porcine circovirus, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Salmonella, Suid herpesvirus 1, Sus scrofa, Ungulate protoparvovirus 1, correlation, disease control, epidemiology, females, health status, longitudinal studies, males, monitoring, mountains, national parks, pathogens, population growth, space and time, swine influenza, wild boars, Iberian Peninsula, Spain
Wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations are increasing in the Iberian Peninsula, and population management must include disease management and control. In this study, the epidemiology of 10 selected pathogens (Aujeszky's disease virus – ADV, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus – PRRSV, porcine influenza virus, porcine circovirus, porcine parvovirus, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, Leptospira pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp., Salmonella sp. and Mycobacterium bovis) in the wild boar population in Sierra Nevada National Park (SNNP), an open unfenced area, is reported, taking into account wild boar population abundance variation in space and time in an open unfenced environment. A total of 1103 wild boar were sampled in 141 hunting events randomly carried out for sampling in seven hunting seasons (October to February from 2002–2003 to 2009–2010 (except 2007–2008). Prevalence was overall lower than those previously reported for fenced wild boar populations in Spain, but all the pathogens analyzed except PRRSV were considered endemic in the SNNP. ADV, E. rhusiopathiae and total pathogen prevalence were positively correlated to wild boar density. Prevalence in the positive areas was significantly higher in females for ADV, E. rhusiopathiae, L. pomona, Chlamydia/Chlamydiaceae sp. and Salmonella sp., and in males for M. bovis. This longitudinal study provides the first data on the health status of the relatively unmanaged and low density wild boar population of SNNP. It is concluded that non-intensively managed wild boar populations are able to maintain the circulation of several pathogens, even in low prevalences and in open unfenced areas with natural density variation both in time and space.