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Immunological comparison of DNA vaccination using two delivery systems against canine leishmaniasis

Shahbazi, Mehdi, Zahedifard, Farnaz, Saljoughian, Noushin, Doroud, Delaram, Jamshidi, Shahram, Mahdavi, Niousha, Shirian, Sadegh, Daneshbod, Yahya, Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed, Papadopoulou, Barbara, Rafati, Sima
Veterinary parasitology 2015 v.212 no.3-4 pp. 130-139
DNA, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum, antigens, cysteine proteinases, delayed hypersensitivity, dog diseases, dogs, electroporation, humans, immune response, immunoglobulin G, interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, nanoparticles, parasites, recombinant vaccines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, vaccination, vaccine development, visceral leishmaniasis
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a fatal disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the primary reservoirs of this parasite, and vaccination of dogs could be an effective method to reduce its transfer to humans. In order to develop a vaccine against VL (apart from the choice of immunogenic candidate antigens), it is necessary to use an appropriate delivery system to promote a proper antigen-specific immune response. In this study, we compared two vaccine delivery systems, namely electroporation and cationic solid–lipid nanoparticle (cSLN) formulation, to administer a DNA vaccine containing the Leishmania donovani A2 antigen, and L. infantum cysteine proteinases of type I (CPA) and II (CPB) without its unusual C-terminal extension. The protective potencies of these two vaccine delivery systems were evaluated against L. infantum challenge in outbred dogs. Our results show that the administration of pcDNA-A2-CPA-CPB−CTEGFP vaccine as a prime-boost by either electroporation or cSLN formulation protects the dogs against L. infantum infection. Partial protection in vaccinated dogs is associated with significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of IgG2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α and with low levels of IgG1 and IL-10 as compared to the control group. Protection was also correlated with a low parasite burden and a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. This study demonstrates that both electroporation and cSLN formulation can be used as efficient vaccine delivery systems against visceral leishmaniasis.