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Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum from maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to Lutzomyia longipalpis

Mol, Juliana P.S., Soave, Semíramis A., Turchetti, Andréia P., Pinheiro, Guilherme R.G., Pessanha, Angela T., Malta, Marcelo C.C., Tinoco, Herlandes P., Figueiredo, Luiza A., Gontijo, Nelder F., Paixão, Tatiane A., Fujiwara, Ricardo T., Santos, Renato L.
Veterinary parasitology 2015 v.212 no.3-4 pp. 86-91
Chrysocyon brachyurus, DNA, Leishmania infantum, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Speothos venaticus, biological resistance, dogs, females, invertebrates, parasite load, promastigotes, visceral leishmaniasis, wildlife, xenodiagnosis, North America, South America
Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is the cause of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The disease is transmitted mostly through the bite of the invertebrate vector, the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis in the New World. Although the domestic dog is considered the most important reservoir of the disease, other mammalian, including wildlife, are susceptible to infection. The goal of this study was to perform xenodiagnosis to evaluate the capacity of naturally infected maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) to transmit Leishmania infantum to female sand flies (L. longipalpis). Xenodiagnoses were performed in February and August, 2013, when 77.7% (three maned wolves and four bush dogs) or 100% of the animals were positive, respectively. However, parasite loads in the engorged sand flies was low (<200 promastigotes and <150.2parasites/μg of DNA). No statistically significant differences were observed between the two species or the two time points (February and August). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that maned wolves (C. brachyurus) and bush dogs (S. venaticus) asymptomatically infected with L. infantum are capable of transmitting L. infantum to the invertebrate host L. longipalpis, although the parasite loads in engorged phlebotomines exposed to these animals were very low.