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Trypanosoma evansi infection in a German shepherd dog — Apparent successful treatment using serial low dose of diminazene aceturate

Panigrahi, Padma Nibash, Mahendran, K., Jena, Subas Chandra, Behera, Parthasarathi, Mahajan, Sumit, Arjun, Kasondra, Dey, Sahadeb
Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports 2015 v.1-2 pp. 70-74
Boselaphus tragocamelus, German Shepherd, Trypanosoma evansi, alanine transaminase, anemia, antelopes, antioxidants, blindness, blood, blood glucose, body weight, clinical examination, cornea, creatinine, diminazene, dogs, fever, head, leukopenia, males, microscopy, opacity, oxidants, parasitemia, polymerase chain reaction, pressing, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), therapeutics, urea nitrogen
The present study reports a new case of Trypanosoma evansi infection in a dog possibly due to oral transmission from a wild antelope, Nilgai. A four year old male German shepherd dog presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic with history of inappetance, persistent fever, ocular discharge, standing for prolong periods and head pressing. Physical examination revealed corneal opacity, absence of menace reflex and partial blindness. The blood smear examination revealed the presence of Trypanosoma species. T. evansi infection was confirmed by RoTat 1.2 T. evansi specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Haemato-biochemical examination showed anaemia, leukopenia, neutrophilia, a mild increase in concentration of alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine, and a decrease in concentration of blood glucose level. The dog was treated with diminazene aceturate at 3.5mg/kg body weight by deep intramuscular for 5days along with supportive therapy. Marked recovery in clinical signs as well as restoration of normal organ function and oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium was observed after two weeks of treatment. The dog was followed up to 6month and was negative for T. evansi by microscopy and PCR. The present treatment of a consecutive five dose regime of diminazene aceturate along with supportive therapy may help clinicians to overcome the hurdle of relapsing parasitaemia due to T. evansi and successful recovery in clinical cases.