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Functional characterization and organ distribution of three mitochondrial ATP–Mg/Pi carriers in Arabidopsis thaliana

Magnus Monné, Daniela Valeria Miniero, Toshihiro Obata, Lucia Daddabbo, Luigi Palmieri, Angelo Vozza, M. Cristina Nicolardi, Alisdair R. Fernie, Ferdinando Palmieri
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2015 v.1847 no.10 pp. 1220-1230
Arabidopsis thaliana, EDTA (chelating agent), adenosine, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine triphosphate, calcium, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, flowers, gene expression, genes, humans, leaves, membrane proteins, mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane, phosphates, pyridoxal phosphate, seedlings, sulfates, thiosulfates, transcription (genetics)
The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains 58 membrane proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family. Three members of this family, here named AtAPC1, AtAPC2, and AtAPC3, exhibit high structural similarities to the human mitochondrial ATP–Mg2+/phosphate carriers. Under normal physiological conditions the AtAPC1 gene was expressed at least five times more than the other two AtAPC genes in flower, leaf, stem, root and seedlings. However, in stress conditions the expression levels of AtAPC1 and AtAPC3 change. Direct transport assays with recombinant and reconstituted AtAPC1, AtAPC2 and AtAPC3 showed that they transport phosphate, AMP, ADP, ATP, adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate and, to a lesser extent, other nucleotides. AtAPC2 and AtAPC3 also had the ability to transport sulfate and thiosulfate. All three AtAPCs catalyzed a counter-exchange transport that was saturable and inhibited by pyridoxal-5′-phosphate. The transport activities of AtAPCs were also inhibited by the addition of EDTA or EGTA and stimulated by the addition of Ca2+. Given that phosphate and sulfate can be recycled via their own specific carriers, these findings indicate that AtAPCs can catalyze net transfer of adenine nucleotides across the inner mitochondrial membrane in exchange for phosphate (or sulfate), and that this transport is regulated both at the transcriptional level and by Ca2+.