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Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems
- Cherchi, Carla, Badruzzaman, Mohammad, Gordon, Matthew, Bunn, Simon, Jacangelo, JosephG.
- Environmental Science & Technology 2015 v.49 no.22 pp. 13724-13732
- adverse effects, carbon footprint, cost effectiveness, drinking water, energy costs, energy efficiency, energy resources, energy use and consumption, greenhouse gases, management systems, models, summer, tanks, water distribution, water quality, water utilities, winter, California
- Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.