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Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei (Lythraceae) seedlings for phytoremediation applications

Wang, Yixiang, Gu, Cuihua, Bai, Shangbin, Sun, Zhibin, Zhu, Tingting, Zhu, Xudan, Grit, Dale H., Tembrock, Luke R.
International journal of phytoremediation 2016 v.18 no.11 pp. 1104-1112
Lagerstroemia fauriei, Lagerstroemia indica, bioaccumulation factor, biomass production, cadmium, chlorophyll, heavy metals, humans, leaves, lipid peroxidation, metal tolerance, phytoremediation, pot culture, proline, roots, seedling growth, seedlings, shoots, soil, soil pollution
Contamination by heavy metals is one of the most serious environmental problems generated from human activities. Because phytoremediation utilizes plants to uptake contaminants, it could potentially be used to remediate metal-contaminated areas. A pot culture experiment with four levels of cadmium (Cd) (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg of Cd/kg dry soil) was conducted to investigate Cd accumulation and tolerance of roots, shoots, and leaves of Lagerstroemia indica and Lagerstroemia fauriei as well as their potential for phytoremediation. Experimental results indicated that Cd inhibited seedling growth only at the higher Cd exposure concentration (40 and 80 mg/kg). The tolerance index revealed that on average L. indica is more tolerant of Cd than L. fauriei . Moreover, plants in the experiment accumulated Cd differentially. In comparisons between L. indica and L. fauriei , the leaves of the former had higher concentrations of Cd, while the roots of latter had higher concentrations of Cd. Furthermore, the roots, shoots, and leaves had very high bioaccumulation factors that markedly exceeded 1.0 (exceptional only in shoots of 80 mg/kg for L. fauriei), indicating that the seedlings extracted Cd from the soil. The leaves' translocation factor of L. indica was greater than 1.0, being significantly higher than that of L. fauriei . Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and total declined in both species significantly as Cd concentrations exceeded 40 mg/kg in the soil. In contrast, lipid peroxidation and proline content was found to increase with increasing Cd concentration. From the assessments of biomass production, Cd tolerance and uptake L. indica and L. fauriei could stand as excellent species for remediating Cd-contaminated soils.