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Non‐Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces strains co‐fermentation increases acetaldehyde accumulation: effect on anthocyanin‐derived pigments in Tannat red wines

Medina, Karina, Boido, Eduardo, Fariña, Laura, Dellacassa, Eduardo, Carrau, Francisco
Yeast 2016 v.33 no.7 pp. 339-343
Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acetaldehyde, anthocyanins, color, fermentation, grape must, grapes, monitoring, phenol, red wines, winemaking, yeasts
During fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae releases into the medium secondary metabolic products, such as acetaldehyde, able to react with anthocyanins, producing more stable derived pigments. However, very limited reports are found about non‐Saccharomyces effects on grape fermentation. In this study, six non‐Saccharomyces yeast strains, belonging to the genera Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora, were screened for their effect on red wine colour and wine‐making capacity under pure culture conditions and mixed with Saccharomyces. An artificial red grape must was prepared, containing a phenolic extract of Tannat grapes that allows monitoring changes of key phenol parameters during fermentation, but without skin solids in the medium. When fermented in pure cultures, S. cerevisiae produced higher concentrations of acetaldehyde and vitisin B (acetaldehyde reaction‐dependent) compared to M. pulcherrima M00/09G, Hanseniaspora guillermondii T06/09G, H. opuntiae T06/01G, H. vineae T02/05F and H. clermontiae (A10/82Fand C10/54F). However, co‐fermentation of H. vineae and H. clermontiae with S. cerevisiae resulted in a significantly higher concentration of acetaldehyde compared with the pure S. cerevisiae control. HPLC–DAD–MS analysis confirmed an increased formation of vitisin B in co‐fermentation treatments when compared to pure Saccharomyces fermentation, suggesting the key role of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.