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Juvenile Atlantic salmon decrease white trunk muscle IGF‐1 expression and reduce muscle and plasma free sulphur amino acids when methionine availability is low while liver sulphur metabolites mostly is unaffected by treatment
- Espe, M., Veiseth‐Kent, E., Zerrahn, J.‐E., Rønnestad, I., Aksnes, A.
- Aquaculture nutrition 2016 v.22 no.4 pp. 801-812
- Salmo salar, cathepsins, dietary protein, fish, free amino acids, gene expression, genes, insulin-like growth factor I, juveniles, ligases, lipids, liver, metabolites, methionine, methylation, muscles, myosin light chains, protein synthesis, proteolysis, sulfur, weight gain
- We previously reported that juvenile Atlantic salmon with mean initial BW 11.5 g offed a methionine deficient diet had lower weight gain due to a reduced protein accretion, while lipid gain was unaffected. Muscle of the fish fed the methionine deficient diet was depleted for sulphur amino acids, while in liver, the concentration of these metabolites was maintained within narrow limits. We speculated whether this could be due to an increased muscle proteolysis to support a prioritized liver metabolism in fish fed the low methionine diets. In this study, we assessed whether genes associated with muscle proteolysis increased under methionine deficiency. The composition of the diets was similar to those used previously containing 1.6 or 2.1 g Met/16 g N. We confirmed that the fish fed the low methionine diet gained less protein compared to fish fed the DL‐methionine enriched diet (P = 0.014), but growth did not reduce significantly. Also the deficient fish maintained the concentrations of liver sulphur amino acids and reduced muscle free methionine. Several of the other free amino acids within muscle increased. Further, methylation capacity was maintained in liver but reduced in the muscle (P = 0.78 and 0.04, respectively). Gene expression of muscle IGF‐1 was lower (P = 0.008) and myosin light chain 2 tended (MLC2, P = 0.06) to be reduced in fish fed low methionine diet, concurrently the activity of cathepsins B+L increased (P = 0.047) in muscle of fish fed the low methionine diet. Gene expression of the muscle‐specific E3 ubiquitine ligases (Murf and MaFbx) was not affected by treatment. Thus, the lower protein gain observed in fish fed the low methionine diet may be caused by reduced protein synthesis in line with the reduced IGF‐1 gene expression in the white trunk muscle. Thus, to support metabolism, the dietary protein needs to be balanced in amino acids to support metabolism in all compartments of the body and secure maximal protein gain.