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Alterations and correlations of the gut microbiome, metabolism and immunity in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis

Lv, Long‐Xian, Fang, Dai‐Qiong, Shi, Ding, Chen, De‐Ying, Yan, Ren, Zhu, Yi‐Xin, Chen, Yan‐Fei, Shao, Li, Guo, Fei‐Fei, Wu, Wen‐Rui, Li, Ang, Shi, Hai‐Yan, Jiang, Xia‐Wei, Jiang, Hui‐Yong, Xiao, Yong‐Hong, Zheng, Shu‐Sen, Li, Lan‐Juan
Environmental microbiology 2016 v.18 no.7 pp. 2272-2286
Acidobacteria, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Bacteroides eggerthii, Enterobacter asburiae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella, Lachnobacterium, Megasphaera, Neisseriaceae, Ruminococcus bromii, Spirochaetaceae, Streptococcus, Veillonella, bacteria, blood serum, cytokines, digestive system, feces, genes, immunity, intestinal microorganisms, liver function, metabolism, metabolome, metagenomics, microbiome, pathogens, patients, ribosomal RNA, urine
We selected 42 early‐stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Metagenomic sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the fecal microbiome. UPLC‐MS/MS assaying of small molecules was used to characterize the metabolomes of the serum, urine and feces. Liquid chip assaying of serum cytokines was used to characterize the immune profiles. The gut of PBC patients were depleted of some potentially beneficial bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Lachnobacterium sp., Bacteroides eggerthii and Ruminococcus bromii, but were enriched in some bacterial taxa containing opportunistic pathogens, such as γ‐Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Neisseriaceae, Spirochaetaceae, Veillonella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Anaeroglobus geminatus, Enterobacter asburiae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Megasphaera micronuciformis and Paraprevotella clara. Several altered gut bacterial taxa exhibited potential interactions with PBC through their associations with altered metabolism, immunity and liver function indicators, such as those of Klebsiella with IL‐2A and Neisseriaceae with urinary indoleacrylate. Many gut bacteria, such as some members of Bacteroides, were altered in their associations with the immunity and metabolism of PBC patients, although their relative abundances were unchanged. Consequently, the gut microbiome is altered and may be critical for the onset or development of PBC by interacting with metabolism and immunity.