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Bacterial alkaline phosphomonoesterase in the rhizospheres of plants grown in Chilean extreme environments

Acuña, Jacquelinne J., Durán, Paola, Lagos, Lorena M., Ogram, Andrew, de la Luz Mora, María, Jorquera, Milko A.
Biology and fertility of soils 2016 v.52 no.6 pp. 763-773
bacterial communities, correlation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, genes, hot springs, indigenous species, phosphorus, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rhizosphere, ribosomal RNA, soil, Andes region, Antarctic region, Argentina, Chile
Bacterial alkaline phosphomonoesterases (APases) are relevant for organic phosphorus (Po) recycling in many soils. However, the abundance and diversity of bacterial APase in the rhizospheres of native plants are poorly known, particularly in extreme environments. In this research work, we studied the composition of total and APase-harboring bacterial communities, abundances of selected APase genes (phoD and phoX), and APase activities in rhizosphere soils from native plants grown in extreme environments of northern (Atacama Desert), central (Andes volcano; Quetrupillan and Mamuil Malal) and hot spring (Liquiñe), and southern polar (Patagonia and Antarctic) regions of Chile. Differences in the composition of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soils were revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), phoD, and phoX genes. In general, the significant lowest bacterial diversities, APase gene abundances, and APase activities were observed in rhizosphere soils from Atacama Desert, whereas the highest values were observed in rhizosphere soils of Patagonia. In addition, APase gene abundances were positively correlated among them and with APase activity of rhizosphere soils, but negatively correlated with phosphorus (P) availability in rhizosphere soils. Although bacterial APases were observed in all studied rhizosphere soils, their relevance to soil Po recycling in soils of extreme environments remains unclear and further studies are needed.