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Chronic black tea extract consumption improves endothelial function in ovariectomized rats
- Leung, Fung Ping, Yung, Lai Ming, Ngai, Ching Yuen, Cheang, Wai San, Tian, Xiao Yu, Lau, Chi Wai, Zhang, Yang, Liu, Jian, Chen, Zhen Yu, Bian, Zhao-Xiang, Yao, Xiaoqiang, Huang, Yu
- European journal of nutrition 2016 v.55 no.5 pp. 1963-1972
- NADP (coenzyme), Western blotting, active ingredients, animal models, arteries, black tea, blood serum, cardiovascular diseases, cholesterol, cyclic GMP, dietary supplements, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, estradiol, females, fluorescence, image analysis, lipid metabolism, ovariectomy, phosphorylation, postmenopause, rats, reactive oxygen species, risk, theaflavins, triacylglycerols, women
- PURPOSE: Menopause escalates the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women. There is an unmet need for better treatment strategy for estrogen-deficiency-related cardiovascular complications. Here we investigated the impact of chronic black tea extract (BT) consumption on cardiovascular function and lipid metabolism using a rat model of estrogen deficiency. METHODS: Female Sprague–Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with BT (15 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks; active ingredients: theaflavins) or estrogen (E2) treatment for 4 weeks. Serum was collected for measuring cholesterol, triacylglycerol and estradiol levels. Changes in vascular reactivity were examined. The protein levels of NADPH oxidases were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence imaging. The concentrations of cGMP were measured using ELISA kit. RESULTS: Aortic rings from control, BT-treated and E2-treated OVX rats exhibited a greater increase in Phe-induced contraction after inhibition of NO synthase compared with those from OVX rats. ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations were augmented in aortae and renal arteries in BT/E2-treated OVX rats than in OVX rats. BT/E2 treatment improved flow-mediated dilatation in small mesenteric resistance arteries of OVX rats. BT/E2 treatment restored the eNOS phosphorylation level and reversed the up-regulation of NADPH oxidases and ROS overproduction in OVX rat aortae. ACh-stimulated cGMP production was significantly elevated in the aortae from BT- and E2-treated rats compared with those from OVX rats. BT/E2 treatment reduced circulating levels of total cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the novel benefits of chronic BT consumption to reverse endothelial dysfunction and favorably modifying cholesterol profile in a rat model of estrogen deficiency and provides insights into developing BT as beneficial dietary supplements for postmenopausal women.