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Phylogenetic analyses of the isonychiid mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Isonychiidae) in the northeast palearctic region

Saito, Rie, Jo, JaeIck, Sekiné, Kazuki, Bae, Yeon Jae, Tojo, Koji
Entomological research 2016 v.46 no.4 pp. 246-259
Ephemeroptera, Palaearctic region, genetic techniques and protocols, genetic variation, histones, mitochondrial DNA, monophyly, nucleotide sequences, phylogeography, ribosomal RNA, Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, Russia
We investigated the molecular phylogeny of isonychiid mayflies inhabiting the East Palearctic region, Isonychia (Isonychia) japonica, Isonychia (Isonychia) ignota, Isonychia (Isonychia) ussurica and Isonychia (Prinoides) shima. We discuss their genetic structures, phylogeny and phylogeography. We collected a total of 100 specimens of isonychiid mayfly species from 47 localities of the Northeast Palearctic region (the Japanese archipelago, the Korean peninsula, the Russian Far East and Mongolia). We analyzed the DNA sequences at the mtDNA COI and 16S rRNA regions, and the nuDNA Histone H3 region. As a result of our genetic analyses of the four Northeast Palearctic isonychiid mayflies, their monophyly at the species level was supported by both the mtDNA (COI and 16S rRNA regions) and the nuDNA (Histone H3 region). In addition, it also became clear that significantly large genetic differentiation exists at the inter‐species level; thus, the relationship of “shima + (japonica + (ignota + ussurica))” is supported. Among the four isonychiid mayflies of the Northeast Palearctic area, I. (P.) shima was shown to be a basal‐most linage within the included species