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Biological treatment of combined industrial wastewater
- Fazal, Saima, Zhang, Beiping, Mehmood, Qaisar
- Ecological engineering 2015 v.84 pp. 551-558
- Eichhornia crassipes, ammonia, biological treatment, bioremediation, cadmium, chemical oxygen demand, constructed wetlands, cost effectiveness, lead, mercury, nickel, nitrates, phosphates, planting, sludge, turbidity, wastewater
- This study investigated the effect of three integrated constructed wetlands (CW), which have been considered as efficient and cost-effective natural bioremediation systems for the removal of contaminants. Three kind of constructed wetlands were constructed: one was planted with water hyacinth, one with sludge (anaerobic wetland) and the third act as control. The wetland with water hyacinth was efficient in reducing EC (74.9%), turbidity (92.5%), COD (83.7%), TSS (91.8%), TDS (62.3%), TS (80%), nitrates (67.5%), ammonia (71.6%), phosphates (90.2%), Cd (97.5%), Ni (95.1%), Hg (99.9%) and Pb (83.4%). The anaerobic sludge was efficient in reducing EC (61.5%), turbidity (80.0%), COD (76.35%), TSS (91.9%), TDS (78.4%), TS (80%), nitrates (79%), phosphates (59.6%), ammonia (51.7%), Cd (100%), Ni (92.2%), Hg (100%) and Pb (66.75%). CW with water hyacinth was more efficient in reducing EC, turbidity, COD, ammonia, phosphates, Ni and lead than CW with sludge whereas sludge was more efficient in removing nitrates, Cd and Hg as compared to water hyacinth.