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Structural and Energetic Effects in the Molecular Recognition of Protonated Peptidomimetic Bases by 18-Crown-6

Chen, Yu, Rodgers, M. T.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012 v.134 no.4 pp. 2313-2324
arginine, binding capacity, binding sites, histidine, lysine, methylamine, pentane, peptides, proteins, protons, tandem mass spectrometry
Absolute 18-crown-6 (18C6) affinities of nine protonated peptidomimetic bases are determined using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques. The bases (B) included in this work are mimics for the n-terminal amino group and the side chains of the basic amino acids, i.e., the favorable sites for binding of 18C6 to peptides and proteins. Isopropylamine is chosen as a mimic for the n-terminal amino group, imidazole and 4-methylimidazole are chosen as mimics for the side chain of histidine (His), 1-methylguanidine is chosen as a mimic for the side chain of arginine (Arg), and several primary amines including methylamine, ethylamine, n-propylamine, n-butylamine, and 1,5-diamino pentane as mimics for the side chain of lysine (Lys). Theoretical electronic structure calculations are performed to determine stable geometries and energetics for neutral and protonated 18C6 and the peptidomimetic bases, as well as the proton bound complexes comprised of these species, (B)H⁺(18C6). The measured 18C6 binding affinities of the Lys side chain mimics are larger than the measured binding affinities of the mimics for Arg and His. These results suggest that the Lys side chains should be the preferred binding sites for 18C6 complexation to peptides and proteins. Present results also suggest that competition between Arg or His and Lys for 18C6 is not significant. The mimic for the n-terminal amino group exhibits a measured binding affinity for 18C6 that is similar to or greater than that of the Lys side chain mimics. However, theory suggests that binding to n-terminal amino group mimic is weaker than that to all of the Lys mimics. These results suggest that the n-terminal amino group may compete with the Lys side chains for 18C6 complexation.