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A Detrimental Reaction at the Molybdenum Back Contact in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-Film Solar Cells
- Scragg, Jonathan J., Wätjen, J. Timo, Edoff, Marika, Ericson, Tove, Kubart, Tomas, Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte
- Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012 v.134 no.47 pp. 19330-19333
- annealing, heat treatment, molybdenum, photovoltaic cells, transmission electron microscopy
- Experimental proof is presented for a hitherto undetected solid-state reaction between the solar cell material Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ (CZTS(e)) and the standard metallic back contact, molybdenum. Annealing experiments combined with Raman and transmission electron microscopy studies show that this aggressive reaction causes formation of MoS₂ and secondary phases at the CZTS|Mo interface during thermal processing. A reaction scheme is presented and discussed in the context of current state-of-the-art synthesis methods for CZTS(e). It is concluded that alternative back contacts will be important for future improvements in CZTS(e) quality.