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Enzyme Architecture: Deconstruction of the Enzyme-Activating Phosphodianion Interactions of Orotidine 5′-Monophosphate Decarboxylase
- Goldman, Lawrence
M., Amyes, Tina L., Goryanova, Bogdana, Gerlt, John A., Richard, John P.
- Journal of the American Chemical Society 2014 v.136 no.28 pp. 10156-10165
- amides, catalysts, decarboxylation, energy, hydrogen bonding, mutants, mutation, orotic acid, thermodynamics
- The mechanism for activation of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) by interactions of side chains from Gln215 and Try217 at a gripper loop and R235, adjacent to this loop, with the phosphodianion of OMP was probed by determining the kinetic parameters kcₐₜ and Kₘ for all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the phosphodianion is shown to be equal to the sum of the binding energies of the side chains of R235 (6 kcal/mol), Q215 (2 kcal/mol), Y217 (2 kcal/mol), and hydrogen bonds to the G234 and R235 backbone amides (2 kcal/mol). Analysis of a triple mutant cube shows small (ca. 1 kcal/mol) interactions between phosphodianion gripper side chains, which are consistent with steric crowding of the side chains around the phosphodianion at wild-type OMPDC. These mutations result in the same change in the activation barrier to the OMPDC-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate OMP and the substrate pieces (1-β-d-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) and phosphite dianion. This shows that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of OMP is divided between the 8 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable conformational change of the free enzyme, resulting in an increase in (kcₐₜ)ₒbₛ for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, and the 4 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to stabilize the Michaelis complex, resulting in a decrease in (Kₘ)ₒbₛ.