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Oxidative stress and nitric oxide are increased in obese children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function

Correia-Costa, Liane, Sousa, Teresa, Morato, Manuela, Cosme, Dina, Afonso, Joana, Areias, José C., Schaefer, Franz, Guerra, António, Afonso, Alberto C., Azevedo, Ana, Albino-Teixeira, António
The British journal of nutrition 2016 v.116 no.5 pp. 805-815
myeloperoxidase, nitrites, blood pressure, oxidative stress, correlation, C-reactive protein, biomarkers, glomerular filtration rate, hydrogen peroxide, insulin resistance, metabolism, risk factors, children, oxidants, childhood obesity, kidney diseases, body mass index, nitric oxide, cholesterol, World Health Organization, nitrates
Oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) appear to represent important links between obesity and cardiovascular, metabolic and/or renal disease. We investigated whether oxidative stress and NO production/metabolism are increased in overweight and obese prepubertal children and correlate with cardiometabolic risk and renal function. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of 313 children aged 8–9 years. Anthropometrics, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), insulin resistance (homoeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR)), inflammatory/metabolic biomarkers, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma and urinary isoprostanes (P-Isop, U-Isop), urinary hydrogen peroxide (U-H₂O₂), and plasma and urinary nitrates and nitrites (P-NOx, U-NOx) were compared among normal weight, overweight and obese groups, according to WHO BMI z-score reference. U-Isop were increased in the obese group, whereas U-NOx were increased in both overweight and obese children. U-Isop were positively correlated with U-H₂O₂, myeloperoxidase (MPO), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, HOMA-IR and TAG. TAS correlated negatively with U-Isop and MPO and positively with PWV. HOMA-IR and U-H₂O₂ were associated with higher U-Isop, independently of BMI and eGFR, and total cholesterol and U-H₂O₂ were associated with U-NOx, independently of BMI, eGFR values and P-NOx concentration. In overweight and obese children, eGFR decreased across P-NOx tertiles (median: 139·3 (25th, 75th percentile 128·0, 146·5), 128·0 (25th, 75th percentile 121·5, 140·4), 129·5 (25th, 75th percentile 119·4, 138·3), P fₒᵣ ₗᵢₙₑₐᵣ ₜᵣₑₙd=0·003). We conclude that oxidant status and NO are increased in relation to fat accumulation and, even in young children, they translate into higher values of cardiometabolic risk markers and affect renal function.