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A fundamental study of cryoablation on normal bone: Diagnostic imaging and histopathology

Yoshimoto, Yuta, Azuma, Kazuo, Miya, Atsushi, Makino, Eiichi, Nakamoto, Hidekazu, Abe, Nobutaka, Kaburagi, Masashi, Ueda, Hisaki, Kuroda, Kohei, Tsuka, Takeshi, Sugiyama, Akihiko, Imagawa, Tomohiro, Murahata, Yusuke, Itoh, Norihiko, Osaki, Tomohiro, Shimizu, Tadashi, Okamoto, Yoshiharu
Cryobiology 2014 v.69 no.2 pp. 229-235
adverse effects, anesthesia, appetite, bone marrow cells, computed tomography, femur, histopathology, ice, image analysis, inflammation, lameness, magnetic resonance imaging, metastasis, necrosis, neoplasms, osteoblasts, rabbits, staining
Cryoablation is a minimally invasive cancer treatment. In this study, the effects of cryoablation on normal rabbit bone were evaluated using imaging and histopathological examinations. Cryoablation was performed using a Cryo-Hit (Galil Medical, Yokneam, Israel). Under anesthesia, one cryoablation needle was inserted at the center of the femur (day 0). To create an ice ball (2×3cm), two 10-min freeze cycles were performed, separated by a 5-min thaw cycle. During cryoablation, changes in the bone and regional tissue were monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI scans, computed tomography (CT) scans, and collections from the femur (for histopathological evaluation) were performed on days 7, 14, 28, and 56. In terms of the all rabbits’ general conditions, we did not observe lameness, decreased appetite, or any other side effects during the experimental periods. Histopathological evaluations of the femur were performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. MRI indicated inflammation around the ice ball on day 7. Subsequently, the area of inflammation gradually decreased from days 14 to 56. In the histopathological examination, necrosis of bone marrow cells and endosteum were observed from days 7 to 56. No regeneration of bone marrow cells was observed during the experimental period. On the other hand, cryoablation did not influence osteoblasts. Furthermore, there was no pathologic fracture during the experimental period. Our results suggest that cryoablation does not induce severe adverse effects on normal bone, and therefore has potential as a therapeutic option for bone tumors, including metastatic tumors to bone.