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Effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and flow cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed ram sperm

Quan, Guo Bo, Ma, Yuan, Li, Jian, Wu, Guo Quan, Li, Dong Jiang, Ni, Yi Na, Lv, Chun Rong, Zhu, Lan, Hong, Qiong Hua
Cryobiology 2015 v.70 no.1 pp. 23-31
Pisum sativum, Y chromosome, acrosome, adverse effects, farms, flow cytometry, fluorescein, freezing, in vitro fertilization, lectins, phosphatidylserines, propidium, rams, semen, sperm motility, staining, thawing, viability
Cytometric sorting of frozen-thawed sperm can overcome difficulties caused by the unavailability of sorting facilities on farms where semen is collected from male livestock. In order to optimize the cytometric sex-sorting procedure, effects of Hoechst33342 staining on the viability and cytometric sorting efficiency of frozen-thawed ram sperm were evaluated. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with Hoechst33342 at various dye concentrations (80μM, 120μM, 160μM, 200μM, 240μM, or 320μM) for 45min to evaluate effects of dye dose. The frozen-thawed sperm were stained with 160μM Hoechst33342 for various durations (0min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 60min, 75min, or 90min) to evaluate effects of staining duration. Sperm motility and moving velocity were analyzed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis system (CASAS). Acrosome status, membrane integrity, and distribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) in Hoechst33342-stained sperm were analyzed using flow cytometry after staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled lectin from pisum sativum (FITC-PSA), Annexin V, or propidium iodide (PI). The fertility of Hoechst33342-stained sperm was analyzed by in vitro fertilization (IVF). A high-speed cell sorter was used to evaluate effects of Hoechst33342 staining on cytometric sex-sorting of frozen-thawed sperm. The motility, moving velocity, membrane integrity, and PS distribution of Hoechst33342-stained sperm were significantly different from that of immediately thawed sperm (P<0.05). However, there is no significant difference existing among the Hoechst33342-stained groups with respect to the above evaluated parameters. Additionally, along with the staining durations, the adverse effects of the staining procedure on sperm showed a steady increase. However, Hoechst33342 staining did not damage acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability of frozen-thawed ram sperm. Results of cytometric sorting indicated that frozen-thawed sperm can be efficiently sorted into two sperm populations with X and Y chromosome when the Hoechst33342 concentration was 160μM. Moreover, when the staining duration was equal to or longer than 45min, the frozen-thawed sperm can be successfully sorted in the presence of 160μM Hoechst33342. In conclusion, Hoechst33342 staining can detrimentally influence viability of frozen-thawed ram sperm except acrosome and in vitro fertilizing capability. Accordingly, the minimum values of Hoechst33342 concentration and staining duration can be set at 160μM and 45min respectively. However, the maximum values of Hoechst33342 concentration and staining duration were not determined based on the current study. Further research on how to reduce injuries caused by freezing, thawing, and Hoechst33342 staining on frozen-thawed ram sperm is needed.