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Effect of feeding a negative dietary cation-anion difference diet for an extended time prepartum on postpartum serum and urine metabolites and performance

Wu, Z., Bernard, J.K., Zanzalari, K.P., Chapman, J.D.
Journal of dairy science 2014 v.97 no.11 pp. 7133-7143
Holstein, albumins, blood proteins, blood serum, calcium, calving, cows, dietary cation anion difference, early lactation, globulins, heifers, low calorie diet, metabolites, milk yield, pH, potassium, pregnancy, sodium, starch, urine
Forty-five multiparous Holstein cows and 15 springing Holstein heifers were used in a randomized block design trial to determine the effect of length of feeding a negative dietary anion-cation difference (DCAD) diet prepartum on serum and urine metabolites, dry matter (DM) intake, and milk yield and composition. After training to eat through Calan doors (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH), cows within parity were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments and fed a negative-DCAD diet for 3 (3W), 4 (4W), or 6 wk (6W) before predicted calving. Actual days cows were fed negative-DCAD diets was 19.2±4.1, 27.9±3.1, and 41.5±4.1d for 3W, 4W, and 6W, respectively. Before the trial, all cows were fed a high-forage, low-energy diet. During the trial, cows were fed a diet formulated for late gestation (14.6% CP, 42.3% NDF, 20.5% starch, 7.1% ash, and 0.97% Ca) supplemented with Animate (Prince Agri Products Inc., Quincy, IL), with a resulting DCAD (Na + K − Cl − S) of −21.02mEq/100g of DM. After calving, cows were fed a diet formulated for early lactation (18.0% CP, 36.4% NDF, 24.2% starch, 8.1% ash, and 0.94% Ca) for the following 6 wk with a DCAD of 20.55mEq/100g of DM. Urine pH was not different among treatments before calving and averaged 6.36. No differences were observed in prepartum DM intake, which averaged 11.4, 11.5, and 11.7kg/d for 3W, 4W, and 6W, respectively. Prepartum serum total protein, albumin, and Ca concentrations, and anion gap were within normal limits but decreased linearly with increasing time cows were fed a negative-DCAD diet. No differences were observed in serum metabolite concentrations on the day of calving. Postpartum, serum total protein and globulin concentrations increased linearly with increasing length of time the negative-DCAD diet was fed. No differences were observed in postpartum DM intake, milk yield, or concentration of fat or protein among treatments: 19.1kg/d, 40.6kg/d, 4.30%, and 2.80%; 19.6kg/d, 41.5kg/d, 4.50%, and 2.90%; and 18.6kg/d, 41.0kg/d, 4.30%, and 2.73% for 3W, 4W, and 6W, respectively. Results of this trial indicate that no differences existed in health or milk production or components in cows fed a negative-DCAD diet for up to 6 wk prepartum compared with those fed a negative-DCAD diet for 3 or 4 wk prepartum.