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Blood calcium dynamics after prophylactic treatment of subclinical hypocalcemia with oral or intravenous calcium

Author:
Blanc, C.D., Van der List, M., Aly, S.S., Rossow, H.A., Silva-del-Río, N.
Source:
Journal of dairy science 2014 v.97 no.11 pp. 6901-6906
ISSN:
0022-0302
Subject:
Holstein, Jersey, animal health, blood serum, boric acid, calcium, calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, calcium sulfate, cows, crossbreds, hypocalcemia, intravenous injection, milk production, pH, parturition, solubilization, urine
Abstract:
Total serum Ca dynamics and urine pH levels were evaluated after prophylactic treatment of subclinical hypocalcemia after parturition in 33 multiparous Jersey × Holstein crossbreed cows. Cows were blocked according to their calcemic status at the time of treatment [normocalcemic (8.0–9.9mg/dL; n=15) or hypocalcemic (5.0–7.9mg/dL; n=18)] and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: control [no Ca supplementation (n=11)]; intravenous Ca [Ca-IV (n=11), 500mL of 23% calcium gluconate (10.7g of Ca and 17.5g of boric acid as a solubilizing agent; Durvet, Blue Springs, MO)]; or oral Ca [Ca-Oral (n=11), 1 oral bolus (Bovikalc bolus, Boehringer Ingelheim, St. Joseph, MO) containing CaCl2 and CaSO4 (43g of Ca) 2 times 12h apart]. Total serum Ca levels were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, and 48h, and urine pH was evaluated at 0, 1, 12, 24, 36, and 48h after treatment initiation. Total serum Ca levels were higher for Ca-IV than for control and Ca-Oral cows at 1, 2, and 4h after treatment initiation, but lower than Ca-Oral cows at 20, 24, and 36h and lower than control cows at 36 and 48h. At 1h after treatment initiation, when serum Ca levels for Ca-IV cows peaked (11.4mg/dL), a greater proportion of Ca-IV (n=8) cows had total serum Ca levels >10mg/dL than control (n=0) and Ca-Oral (n=1) cows. At 24h after treatment initiation, when Ca-IV cows reached the total serum Ca nadir (6.4mg/dL), a greater proportion of Ca-IV (n=10) cows had serum Ca levels <8mg/dL than control (n=5) and Ca-Oral (n=2) cows. Treatment, time, and treatment × time interaction were significant for urine pH. Mean urine pH was lower for Ca-Oral cows (6.69) than for control (7.52) and Ca-IV (7.19) cows. Urine pH levels at 1h after treatment were lower for Ca-IV cows compared with both control and Ca-Oral cows, a finding likely associated with the iatrogenic administration of boric acid added as a solubilizing agent of the intravenous Ca solution used. At 12, 24, and 36h, urine pH levels were lower for Ca-Oral cows compared with both control and Ca-IV cows. This was expected because the oral Ca supplementation used (Bovikalc) is designed as an acidifying agent. Wide fluctuations in blood Ca were observed after prophylactic intravenous Ca supplementation. The implications for milk production and animal health, if any, of these transient changes in total serum Ca have yet to be evaluated.
Agid:
5395228