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Activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk of different somatic cell counts

Albenzio, M., Santillo, A., Kelly, A.L., Caroprese, M., Marino, R., Sevi, A.
Journal of dairy science 2015 v.98 no.11 pp. 7587-7594
beta-casein, cathepsin D, elastase, electrophoresis, flocks, goat milk, goats, hydrolysis, leukocytes, macrophages, mammary glands, milk, peptides, plasmin, proteolysis, sodium caseinate, somatic cell count
Individual caprine milk with different somatic cell counts (SCC) were studied with the aim of investigating the percentage distribution of leukocyte cell types and the activities of indigenous proteolytic enzymes; proteolysis of casein was also studied in relation to cell type following recovery from milk. The experiment was conducted on 5 intensively managed dairy flocks of Garganica goats; on the basis of SCC, the experimental groups were denoted low (L-SCC; <700,000cells/mL), medium (M-SCC; from 701,000 to 1,500,000cells/mL), and high (H-SCC; >1,501,000cells/mL) SCC. Leukocyte distribution differed between groups; polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes were higher in M-SCC and H-SCC milk samples, the percentage macrophages was the highest in H-SCC, and levels of nonviable cells significantly decreased with increasing SCC. Activities of all the main proteolytic enzymes were affected by SCC; plasmin activity was the highest in H-SCC milk and the lowest in L-SCC, and elastase and cathepsin D activities were the highest in M-SCC. Somatic cell count influenced casein hydrolysis patterns, with less intact α- and β-casein in H-SCC milk. Higher levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides were detected in sodium caseinate incubated with leukocytes isolated from L-SCC milk, independent of cell type, whereas among cells recovered from M-SCC milk, macrophages yielded the highest levels of low electrophoretic mobility peptides from sodium caseinate. The level of high electrophoretic mobility peptides was higher in sodium caseinate incubated with polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes and macrophages isolated from M-SCC, whereas the same fraction of peptides was always the highest, independent of leukocyte type, for cells recovered from H-SCC milk. In caprine milk, a level of 700,000cells/mL represented the threshold for changes in leukocyte distribution, which is presumably related to the immune status of the mammary gland. Differences in the profile of indigenous lysosomal proteolytic enzymes in caprine milk may influence the integrity of casein based on proteolysis patterns of sodium caseinate incubated with isolated and lysed leukocyte types.