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Analysis of Swainsonine and Swainsonine N-Oxide as Trimethylsilyl Derivatives by Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and Their Relative Occurrence in Plants Toxic to Livestock
- Gardner, Dale R., Cook, Daniel
- Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.31 pp. 6156-6162
- endophytes, liquid chromatography, livestock, mass spectrometry, poisonous plants, solvents, swainsonine, toxicity
- There are limited data concerning the occurrence of swainsonine N-oxide in plants known to contain swainsonine and its relative impact on toxicity of the plant material. A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method based on a solvent partitioning extraction procedure followed by trimethylsilylation and analysis using reversed phase high-pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of swainsonine and its N-oxide. The concentrations of each were measured in several swainsonine-containing taxa as well as two endophytic isolates that produce swainsonine. In vegetative samples the relative percent of N-oxide to free base ranged from 0.9 to 18%. In seed samples the N-oxide to free base ratio ranged from 0 to 10%. The measured concentrations of swainsonine N-oxide relative to swainsonine only slightly increases the actual toxicity of the various plant samples in a combined assay of both compounds.